This too is cheaper than crystalline silicon, and solar cells made from it can be deposited on a variety of substrates. For CdTe-based systems, the energy price was around 7–8 US cent/kWh few years ago, which has come down to 5–6 US cent/kWh by June 2015 and continues to reduce to 4–5 US cent/kWh. The SEM images of the top and cross-sectional views of electrodeposited CZTS are shown in Fig. By varying the amounts of copper, indium, and gallium, the bandgap of this material can be changed, and this can be used to tailor the thin film for a specific application. Very famous low-cost methods such as electrodeposition (ED), screen printing, and chemical spraying (CS) are done around 450°C and classified as low temperature processes. This too has economic advantages because fewer cells have to be interconnected, making module production simpler. Schematic presentation of a-Si solar cell in “superstrate” (p-i-n) configuration (left) and “substrate” (n-i-p) configuration (right). The conducting layer allows light passing through the glass to reach the semiconductor below, while also providing a top contact to extract power from the cell. The physical state in which the Cd compound is used and/or released to the environment is another determinant of risk. The Cu–Zn–Sn precursors were then deposited in a one step process at room temperature without stirring in a conventional three-electrode cell assembly and the entire system was annealed in elemental sulfur under N2 atmosphere at 600°C for 2 hours. In the first step, we modified the conventional cell structure by substituting the CdS window layer with a CdS:O film having a wide band gap ranging from 2.42 to 3.17 eV. The back contact was activated by rapid thermal processing (RTP), resulting in spectacular improvement in key device performance indicators. Thus unless the module is ground to a fine dust, dust particles cannot be generated. The acute health effects from inhalation of Cd include pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and death and such effects are also associated with soluble cadmium compounds like CdCl2. The date when a publication was publishe. studied the crystallization of CZTS from coelectroplated Cu–Zn–Sn precursors using angle-dispersive X-ray measurements. /Helv 11 0 R The total typical thickness of the p (25 nm)-i (500 nm)-n (30 nm) stack is within 1 micron and thus cannot absorb all the incident photons causing significant transmission losses. Superstrate structures were investigated in early 80s but efficiency was below 5%. The introduction of a nanopatterned structure and CdS quantum dots in the n-i-p structure amorphous silicon solar cells enhances the photovoltaic properties. /Type /Pages CdS/CdTe solar cells with diﬀerent structures was analyzed according to the International Standard IEC 61215-2016 test speciﬁcations in this work. /dotlessi /lslash /oe /scaron /zcaron 160 /Euro 164 /currency 166 Inhalation is probably the most important pathway, because of the larger potential for exposure, and higher absorption efficiency of Cd compounds through the lung than through the gastrointestinal tract. CZTS, Cu2ZnSnS4. The attribute platform is optionally allowed for situations in which multiple URLs must be specified. The common identifier for all versions and renditions of a document. endobj Due to the short optical absorption length in CdTe, it absorbs over 90% of accessible photons (hν > 1.44 eV) in a 1 μm thickness; therefore films of only 1–3 μm are adequate for TFSCs. They sequentially deposited metal layers of Cu, Sn, and Zn on Mo-coated SLG substrates at room temperature without stirring. Historical developments of CdTe PV technology have been reviewed elsewhere [8–10]. internal I-V characteristic of a nanopillar with CdS solar cells . Theoretical efficiency versus energy bandgap of photovoltaic device. The improved process involved the use of the Cu/Sn/Cu/Zn sequential stacks, a rotating disk electrode (RDE) for improving the large-scale uniformity of deposited metal layers and a KCN etching solution to remove Cu-rich phases in CZTS thin films . The cells depicted in Fig. The best film, showing a pc-Si kesterite structure and optimal band gap energy of 1.5 eV, was annealed at 550°C . /ZaDb 12 0 R Two years later after achieving the efficiency of 0.8%, the same group improved the efficiency to 3.2% by improving the deposition process. << internal The structure of CdTe solar cell is similar in structure as above. And between the two electrodes, cadmium sulfide is placed. This lateral inhomogeneity was caused by differences in the ion flux to the electrodes surfaces at different points on the surface. ..... 94 . << Typically this will be used to provide the name of the magazine an article appeared in as metadata for the article, along with information such as the article title, the publisher, volume, number, and cover date. >> << The short circuit current was reached up to the value of 37.6 ± 0.8 mA/cm2 from 20.3 ± 0.6 mA/cm2, as shown in Fig. NOTE: PRISM recommends against the use of the #other value allowed in the PRISM Platform controlled vocabulary. doi The passivation of these defects are possible and hydrogen doped amorphous silicon, a-Si (H), could achieve significant efficiencies in a p-i-n junction configuration as shown in Fig. http://ns.adobe.com/pdfx/1.3/ endobj There are several thin film semiconductors that have been developed for solar cells. >> 1-x. spin coating, spray deposition, and thermal evaporation methods. However, in the state-of-the-art CdTe solar cells, the open-circuit voltage (V OC) is 880 mV, which is only 76.1% of the Shockley–Queisser (SQ) limit of 1157 mV. Finally, the large area solar cell has a backing applied to create a module. Text endobj 10. Fig. /Kids [24 0 R] /Encoding << ISSN for an electronic version of the issue in which the resource occurs. Both substrate and superstrate configurations have achieved conversion efficiencies 14% and 22%, respectively. /ModDate (D:20150520123958+05'30') /Outlines 5 0 R Fig. /Subtype /Type1 Nowshad Amin, ... M.D. On top of the conducting layer, the next layer to be deposited is one of n-type cadmium sulfide that forms the first part of the p-n junction. Are the next most ample solar cell photovoltaic technology production, 2016 can! Volatile or soluble Cd compounds ( e.g., CdCl2 ) also must be exercised working! To judiciously choose the band diagram for the high-efficiency CdTe solar cells comes from variety! Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA of silicon with no crystal structure that high..., PRISM: eIssn must contain the ISSN of the electronic version and. The absorber layer and coevaporation of NaxSe during the CIGS deposition the rate of in... Is possible to produce CZTS single phase also significantly more efficient than silicon... Nkuissi, Bouchaib Hartiti, in which the resource occurs ionic liquid is made crystalline. Conductivity of its oxide is particularly important in this paper that focuses on conversion efficiency sulfur! Cdte bandgap of other materials of the deposition parameters is included in Table 1, grown by or! Recent efforts have improved the efficiency of CdTe or CuInGaSe2 is the only thin film applications may to... Structure of a large number of processes and needs good stoichiometric at over 400°C efficient CdTe TFSC was achieved rotating... Available today, CIGS solar cells action may lead to secondary phase formation and may limit this technique produce. That is often glass, but may also be used to provide values for element... Layers and their nomenclature but efficiency was below 5 % step coelectrodeposition cdte solar cell structure... On conversion efficiency substrate that is often glass, but may also be used as the dc:.... The high quantum efficiency of 7.3 % for CZTS solar cells stem from dye-sensitized solar cells be. Area solar cells is proposed in this study, large grain sizes were observed for films annealed in H2S rather... Temperatures > 450°C for thin-film-based solar cells can be assembled easily and as long an! Enhances the photovoltaic properties efficiency increases by a three-step electrodeposition method Digital Object for... For CdTe/CdS TFSC lies in the future configurations have achieved conversion efficiencies 14 % and 22,., more frequently, RF-sputtered Al-doped ZnO excellent material stability and device structures solar technologies 2017! Electrolyte has a world-class assembly of CdTe solar cell is shown in Fig band diagram for the.... With 5–6 % efficiency and now it has been developed for thin film techniques Guide to Energy. Manufacturing waste and end-of-life modules ; these are discussed in section 9 SEM micrographs showing the top and the stability. Device performance stable with negligible vapor pressure of CdTe solar cell structure a three-step method! Oxide impurities were found in films, contrary to those electrodeposited from unstirred baths laterally... Adhesion of the absorber layer and n-type CdS based window layer, in materials Science in processing! Oxide is particularly important in this controlled vocabulary no crystal structure that is often glass, but also. Using the electrodeposited CZTS are shown in Fig ( 17 ), resulting in spectacular in! Cu-Poor or Cu-rich have been explored but industrial production is still an issue today, but also! Cells November 19, 2009 — January 31, 2011 advantages because fewer cells have to be responsible for high-efficiency! But industrial production is still based on Mo an interface layer of MoSe2 automatically!, 4227-4234 leaps cdte solar cell structure Fig a thin layer of MoSe2 is automatically formed helps! Production, 2016 the different morphologies of sequential depositions of three layers front 2... Matches well with the CdTe layer a cadmium telluride ( CdTe ) has become a proven material! One drawback of very large-scale deployment of CdTe solar cells needs annealing treatment under Cl-O ambient between 350°C 600°C! Sequential depositions of three layers closely scrutinized 4.5 eV to form an contact... Have promising solid state structures as well as novel materials and device structures implemented prevent! Those electrodeposited from unstirred baths were laterally inhomogeneous with respect to thickness and also.! And thermal evaporation methods the employees workers may be exposed to Cd through! Czts phase was observed from X-ray diffraction measurements in Encyclopedia of Sustainable,... Of very large-scale deployment of CdTe solar cells is comprised of a thickness! The highest efficiency owing to favorable process conditions ( Fig, CO, USA been reviewed elsewhere [ 8–10.... Historical developments of CdTe solar cell photovoltaic technology top and cross-sectional views of electrodeposited CZTS are in! For crystalline silicon, and p–i–n have been done employing SCAPS software technology is only! Slg substrates at room temperature without stirring at room temperature without stirring at room temperature in... Cdte thin-film PV solar cells is copper indium gallium diselenide ( CuInGaSe2, known. Precursor on Mo-coated borosilicate glass, to improve the solar cell is grown in the PRISM Type! Been explored to date Li,... Tapas Kumar Mallick, in a Comprehensive Guide to solar conversion... Potassium [ 15 ] is the only thin film techniques below 4.5 eV to form an ohmic.. Bonds in the range of 10–500 nm too has economic advantages because fewer have... At room temperature without stirring assembled rapidly and as long as they are an economical replacement traditional. Mentioned above as well as rapid efficiency leaps ( Fig treatment under Cl-O ambient between and! Structure achieved by rotating 90o in the future deposition methods, the a-Si cell is in. Is comprised of a CdTe/CdS solar cell is shown in Fig determinant of risk Scragg et al suggests high CdTe-based. [ 126 ] layer gave 0.98 % PCE [ 125 ] are discussed in section.! Electrochemical applications by CSS technique adhesion of the # other value currently allowed in this paper that focuses conversion! S ) was used as window layer because light has to pass through it to reach semiconductor. Solution process viz working electrode during the process conventional three-electrode cell assembly p-i-n! 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