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the foundation of alexandria

This encompassed, at one and the same time, the Alexander of 331, Macedonian king and founder of the city, the Alexander of 323, son of Ammon, universal conqueror and god unvanquished, and finally the Alexander of 321, protector of Egypt who, by coming back from Memphis, transferred the heritage of the pharaohs to the heart of Alexandria.". Among other things, we do not know how many people were initially settled at the site; how their numbers changed over time; where successive generations of immigrants came from; and what the maximum size of the population was, or when it was reached. [12] There were two institutions in Alexandria devoted to the preservation and study of Greek culture, which helped to exclude non-Greeks. Jewish–Greek ethnic tensions in the era of Roman administration led to riots in AD 38 and again in 66. It formed an emirate of the Ayyubid Empire, where Saladin's elder brother Turan Shah was granted a sinecure to keep him from the front lines of the crusades. The Serapeum of the Great Library was destroyed, possibly effecting the final destruction of the Library of Alexandria. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world,[6] and for some centuries more, was second only to Rome. In the year 1365, Alexandria was brutally sacked after being taken by the armies of the Crusaders, led by King Peter of Cyprus. A number of more fanciful foun… Through a competitive scholarship process, the Foundation financially supports students in the transition from high school to 2 and 4-year colleges. Sponsor Spotlight Shamrock Financial has partnered with Alexandria's Foundation in our drive to raise $100,000 through 100 local businesses. On the mainland, life seemed to have centered in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. This was one of the chief reasons that induced Octavian to place it directly under imperial power. In a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general, Ptolemy (later Ptolemy I of Egypt) succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria. "I suspect that despite their lack of civic status, Egyptians were presumably more numerous than any other group. One of the ways we do that is by helping students attain college degrees. What it looked like, its exact location, precisely how many books it held, if it burnt, and who destroyed it. On 7 April 334, Alexander founded Alexandria, the Egyptian city that has correctly been hailed as "the most lasting of all his achievements". These clashes culminated in the Egyptian coup of 1952, during which the army occupied Alexandria and drove King Farouk from his residence at Montaza Palace.[27]. Christine Favard-Meeks & Dimitri Meeks, "The heir of the Delta"; in Jacob & de Polignac (1992/2000); pp. Subscribe Unlock nonprofit financial insights that will help you make more informed decisions. With the symbols of the tomb and the Lighthouse, the Ptolemies promoted the legend of Alexandria as an element of their legitimacy to rule.[3]. [30], In July 2018, archaeologists led by Zeinab Hashish announced the discovery of a 2.000-year-old 30-ton black granite sarcophagus. The French army under Napoleon captured the city in 1798 and the British soon captured it from the French, retaining Alexandria within their sphere of influence for 150 years. In 1999, when asked for $50,000 to meet increased demand for books and electronic information for the new Charles E. Beatley, Jr. Library, the City approved instead a $25,000 challenge grant. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC and was besieged in the city by Cleopatra's brother and rival. Home » Sources » Content » Plutarch » Plutarch's Alexander » Plutarch on the foundation of Alexandria, About Pictures Sources Countries Languages Categories Tags Thanks FAQ Donate Contact Articles Stubs. Unity Foundation of Alexandria, Alexandria, Minnesota & Surrounding areas. Part of Canopus is still on the shore above water, and had been studied by archaeologists the longest. "Nevertheless, throughout most of the period of the Mamluk sultanate (1250–1517), the city of Alexandria was a busy entrepôt for trade between Egypt and Europe. You won’t find a new country, won’t find another shore. Strabo lists Alexandria, with Tarsus and Athens, among the learned cities of the world, observing also that Alexandria both admits foreign scholars and sends its natives abroad for further education. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy Cleomenes continued the expansion. "This quarter is especially noteworthy as it provides our first archaeological window onto urban life in late antique Alexandria. Library of Alexandria Nineteenth-century artistic rendering of the Library of Alexandria by the German artist O. The third award to the museum is from Alexandria Area Community Foundation’s Alexandria Area Response and Recovery Grant, in the amount of … [21] In the year 828, the alleged body of Mark the Evangelist was stolen by Venetian merchants, which led to the Basilica of Saint Mark. Thus ended a period of 975 years of the Greco-Roman control over the city. [26.5] when during the night, as he was sleeping, he saw a remarkable vision. Foundation of the Alexandria Bar Association. Now that you’ve wasted your life here, in this small corner, From Constantine P. Cavafy, "The City" (1910), translated by Edmund Keeley, Alexandria was the home of the ethnically Greek poet Constantine P. Cavafy. Alexandria Area Community Foundation (AACF) has been working for more than 25 years to provide innovative ways for area residents and businesses to give back to their community. 1 But wh at … By Jeremy McInerney, PhD, University of Pennsylvania According to the myth of Alexandria’s construction, Alexander the Great himself was responsible for the city’s foundation. It contained three damaged skeletons in red-brown sewage water. In 645 a Byzantine fleet recaptured the city, but it fell for good the following year. The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fell into ruin. Catholic Foundation of North-Central Louisiana Planned giving and administration for Catholic causes and entities within the Diocese of Alexandria. The Museion was built under Ptolemy II; the Serapeum expanded by Ptolemy III Euergetes; and mausolea for Alexander and the Ptolemies built under Ptolemy IV.[8]. The Nile Delta had long been politically significant as the point of entry for anyone wishing to trade with Egypt.[2]. 32–42. In July 1954, the city was a target of an Israeli bombing campaign that later became known as the Lavon Affair. Though Cleomenoes was mainly in charge of seeing to Alexandria's continuous development, the Heptastadion (causeway to Pharos Island) and the main-land quarters seem to have been mainly Ptolemaic work. In July 1882 the city was the site of the first battle of the Anglo-Egyptian War, when it was bombarded and occupied by British naval forces. The city received no aid from Constantinople during that time; Heraclius was dead and the new Emperor Constans II was barely twelve years old. In 2000, with the opening of the Charles E. Beatley, Jr. Central Library, the Library asked the City to add $50,000 to its operating budg… [11], The law in Alexandria was based on Greek—especially Attic—law. (At first, Egyptians were probably the plurality of residents, while the Jewish community remained small. [29], Lawrence Durrell, working for the British in Alexandria during World War II, achieved international success with the publication of The Alexandria Quartet (1957–1960). 8110 GATEHOUSE RD STE 400W FALLS CHURCH VA 22042-1254. av Ptolemaios II av Egypten. The city grew in the early 19th century under the industrialization program of Mohammad Ali, the viceroy of Egypt. Leaving Siwah, Alexander rode north-east to the Egyptian delta where he founded the city that would become Alexandria-Outside-Egypt. [4] The site also offered unique protection against invading armies: the vast Libyan Desert to the west and the Nile Delta to the east. [26], Relations with the United Kingdom grew strained in the 1950s, with violence periodically erupting between local police and the British army, in Alexandria as well as in Cairo. Denna artikel handlar om det antika biblioteket. The Donations of Alexandria (Autumn 34 BC) were a political act by Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony in which they distributed lands held by Rome and Parthia amongst Cleopatra's children, and granted them many titles, especially for Caesarion, son of Julius Caesar. After Alexander departed, his viceroy, Cleomenes, continued the expansion of the city. Publically the Alexandria Foundation is a philanthropic, non-profit organization dedicated to the “preservation of the human experience”. Alexandria was also home to the largest Jewish community in the ancient world. The latter was recently rediscovered under water. The Footnotes tell me that Curtius, Diodorus and Justin ‘follow the tradition of Aristobulus… in placing the foundation of … Chartered in 1998, the Alexandria Library Foundation, Inc. was formed to enhance the Alexandria Library's services through private donations. The typical grant award is up to $5,000, but larger awards have been bestowed to projects judged to be of high need or merit. After its foundation, Alexandria became the seat of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, and quickly grew to be one of the greatest cities of the Hellenistic world. Alexander's tomb became a famous tourist destination for ancient travelers (including Julius Caesar). Within the next 3-5 years the goal for Alexandria's Nature Bus will be to have additional themes (Michigan Mammals and Creatures of the Night) aboard the bus so that the bus is booked on a daily basis. Given the current restrictions on large gatherings and the heightened health risk of COVID-19 the Board of Directors felt it was in the best interest for all to not hold a large gathering this … According to archaeologist Mostafa Waziri, the skeletons looked like a family burial with a middle-aged woman and two men. Jacob, Christian, & François de Polignac, eds. This page was created in 2002; last modified on 14 July 2020. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. On the advice of his architects he was about to measure out and enclose a certain site. Only a few months later, Alexandria's Manshia Square was the site of the famous, failed assassination attempt on the life of Gamal Abdel Nasser. These processions were used to shout Greek superiority over any non-Greeks that were watching, thereby widening the divide between cultures.[13]. At the same time, the city could enjoy a fresh water supply by means of a canal from the Nile. Luminaries associated with the Musaeum included the geometry and number-theorist Euclid; the astronomer Hipparchus; and Eratosthenes, known for calculating the Earth's circumference and for his algorithm for finding prime numbers, who became head librarian. One of the more sober descriptions, given by the historian Arrian, tells how Alexander undertook to lay out the city's general plan, but lacking chalk or other means, resorted to sketching it out with grain. All content copyright © 1995–2021 Livius.org. In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Persecution of Christians under Diocletian (beginning in AD 284) marks the beginning of the Era of Martyrs in the Coptic calendar.[15]. Headquarters. All rights reserved. The first Anglican missionaries arrived in Egypt in 1819, and the first church building, St Mark's in Alexandria, was consecrated in 1839, followed by All Saints in Cairo in 1876. There was also the town of Menouthis. The Ptolemies fostered the development of the Library of Alexandria and associated Musaeum into a renowned center for Hellenistic learning. After a long decline, Alexandria emerged as major metropolis at the time of the Crusades and lived a flourishing period due to trade with agreements with the Aragonese, Genoese and Venetians who distributed the products arrived from the East through the Red Sea. Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC (the exact date is disputed) as Ἀλεξάνδρεια (Aleksándreia). Through this foundation, it is her family and friends mission to help children experience nature and all its wonderment. Alexandria ligger i Nedre Egypten vid Nilens västra arm i den nordvästra delen av Nildeltat på ett näs mellan Medelhavet och bräckvattensjön Marioutsjön och ligger cirka 220 km nordväst om huvudstaden Kairo.. Staden sträcker sig cirka 20 km [4] längs kusten och har en area om cirka 300 km². [1] Yet, before that, there were some big port cities just east of Alexandria, at the western edge of what is now Abu Qir Bay. "[11] There were ostentatious religious processions in the streets that displayed the wealth and power of the Ptolemies, but also celebrated and affirmed Greekness. In the 3rd century AD, Alexander's tomb was closed to the public, and now its location has been forgotten. As early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion. there’s no ship for you, there’s no road. Once among the greatest cities of the Mediterranean world and a center of Hellenic scholarship and science, Alexandria was the capital of Egypt from its founding by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE until its surrender to Arab forces in 642 CE. Alexandria was intended to supersede the older Greek colony of Naucratis as a Hellenistic centre in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. On being offered a viewing into the tombs of the pharaohs, he refused, saying, "I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses."[14]. 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